History of Chakma Kingdom:

The “Bijok” is the history in Chakma language. So, the “Chakma Bijok” is the chronological history of the “Chakma Nation”. About hundreds of Chakma history written by different authors and in different languages and in different periods. But, very few writers we can found amongst the Chakmas, that is lack of education and historical experiences. Some of the authors wrote that he/she belong from Chakma Nation or Sakya, but nothing knew about the religious historical background of the Chakmas or Sakyas. Some of the authors (Muslim) wrote about their origin that he/she knew nothing about Sakya national historical background as well as religious historical background of them that just to create a problem for political and religious interest for his/her own Nation or Party or Religion or Country. Some of the authors wrote that just collected some reports, recorded by the own Government. Some authors wrote an article about their origin that just he visited few Chakma villages. Here, you will get wide ranges of resources about their origin, both from religious as well as national historical background about the Sakyas or Chakmas.

According to the Chakma historians, the rulers of the Royal Chakma Kingdom was most powerful ever than others Raja (King) in this region in the 6th century. As per as Chakma historians as well as early Buddhist historical evident that the Chakma Raja Bijoygiri, belong from Campa or Champaknagr (now Bhagalpur) in the Kingdom of Anga which was Bengal (now West Bengal and Bihar); came and settled down in the present Jummaland along with his Royal family and large military troops. His father, Raja Samargiri, who was belong from Sakya clan and was most powerful ruler of Kingdom of Anga in the early 6th century. He had two sons, named Prince Bijoygiri and Prince Udaigiri.

The following prominent Chakma Raja’s are:

1. Raja Samargiri (6th century) : Chakma Raja Samargiri was the ruler of the Kingdom of Anga now Bihar and West Bengal). Its capital city was Campa or Champaknagar (now Bhagalpur in West Bengal). Some other important cities are Bhaddiya, Assapura, Kacangala, Girivraja, etc. The people are mostly living Sakyas in the Kingdom and they are Sakyamuni clan, who founded Buddhism in India in 544 BC. Raja Samargiri has two son, named Prince Bijoygiri and Prince Udaigiri. After his died, his son Prince Udaigiri became king in the Kingdom of Anga.

2. Raja Udaigiri ( 651 AD-745 AD) :In around 680 AD, Prince Udaigiri became successor of his father. He was ruled the Kingdom of Anga until 745 AD. But the two brothers lost their relationship from centuries to centuries. According to historical, cultural, logistic and linguistics evident that the group who was under the younger brother Raja Udaigiri, the ruler of Anga the people at present living in Nepal, Garo Hills in Meghalaya, Darjeeling in West Bengal. And the group who was under elder brother Raja Bojoygiri, who established Royal Chakma Kingdom, they are the Chakmas, Chak, Tanchangya, Dainak, Thek, Tsak living in Tripura State, Jummaland, Mizoram, Arakan State, etc.

3. Raja Bijoygiri ( 605-698 AD): In 630 AD, he was conquered Tamarlipitka countries (now Assam, West Bengal, Meghalaya, Arunachal, etc.) and whole region bring under his control. In 645 AD, conquered the Kingdom of Tripura and established “Royal Chakma Kingdom” in the Region permanently. In around 648-49 AD, build a Royal Buddhist Temple named “Raj Benuvan Buoddha Vihar” at Anguli (now Agartala). After ten years ruled in the Region (645-665 AD), he further decided to march toward the east in order to conquered new territories. When they arrived in the eastern Region (Hill Tracts, Cox’s Bazaar, Chittagong, Rangunia, etc.) was “no man land” during that periods. So, without any battles and less effort, Chakma Raja Bijoygiri occupied and captured the whole Regions under his control. The no man land areas became under the Royal Chakma Kingdom. In 666 AD, he was transferred his capital city from Rangam.

4. From 7-10th centuries : No any Chakma Raja’s appeared in the Chakma history that the Royal Chakma Kingdom was under the control of Roang Raja’s and Tripura Raja’s, who was the powerful Kings, ruled for 300 years in this Regions.

5. Raja Kamal Chega (1095-1179 AD) : After 300 years ruled by the Roang and Tripura Raja’s; the Chakma Raja Kamal Chega reunified the Chakma Kingdom Movement in Roang in 1118 AD. His wife Queen Manikbi also morally supported the movement to unified the Royal Chakma Kingdom. After build his large armies, Raja Kamal Chega fought with Magh King of Roang in 1118 AD. The battle was lasted over one year. He was recaptured the Kingdom of Roang and bring the whole Kingdom including Roang, Hill Tracts, Chittagong, Rangunia and Cox’s Bazaar under his control in 1119 AD. He established Royal Chakma Kingdom in the Regions. In 1122 AD, he shifted the Royal capital from Roang to Raja Nagar of Rangunia permanently. Later in 1125 AD, he recaptured the Kingdom of Tripura and some adjacent areas of the Regions. Since than Royal Chakma Dynasty became powerful and existed. He was established his ruled more than 60 years. In 1179 AD, at the age of 84, he was died at Raja Nagar of Rangunia and his successors lost the Kingdom partly (Feni Valley and Khagrachari division) from the King of Tripura in 1240 AD.

6. Raja Marekyaja (14th century) : Raja Marekyaja recaptured the Regions from the King of Tripura and the Kuki Territory and established his ruled 14th century. The whole Regions was then an independent Buddhist Kingdom ruled by Chakma Raja’s until 1575 AD. But, in 1575 AD, the Chakma Raja’s lost the Roang Kingdom in the battle from Arakan King and continued possession the Regions till 1666 AD by the Arakan King. In fact this region frequently changed hands between the rulers of Chakmas, Tripuras and Arakanes King from 7th-15th centuries.

7. Raja Julab Khan (1639-1681 AD) : In 1666 AD, Chakma Raja Julab Khan recaptured the Kingdom of Arakan including Chittagong, Hill Tracts and Kuki Territory. Later in 1671 AD, he captured the Kingdom of Tripura. He was died at the young age of 42 years in 1681 AD in the Royal Palace of Raja Nagar, Rangunia.

8. Raja Sulab Khan (1651-1686 AD): After the Raja Julab Khan died, his son Prince Sulab Khan, became King in the Royal Chakma Kingdom in 1681 AD and he was ruled only for 5 years.

9. Raja Kalu Khan (1662-1700 AD): Raja Kalu Khan became successors of the Royal Chakma Kingdom in 1686 AD. He was ruled for 24 years until 1700 AD.

10. Raja Fateh Khan (1671-1725 AD) : In 1700 AD, he became a successors of the Royal Chakma Kingdom; in 1705 AD, Raja Fateh Khan captured two canons in the battle from the Mughal Empire and in 1713 AD, he was made a “Peace Treaty”.

11. Raja Jalal Khan (1707-1737 AD) : Raja Jalal Khan became a King in the Royal Chakma Kingdom in 1725 AD. He was re-established the treaty with the Mughal Nawab. He was ruled the Kingdom for 12 years.

12. Raja Shermusta Khan (1712-1773 AD): In 1737 AD, Raja Shermusta Khan became Raja in the Kingdom. On 15 October 1760 AD, the British led several military expeditions against the Chakma Raja Shermusta Khan to establish their colonial footing in the Royal Chakma Kingdom. During the Raja Shermusta Khan ruled, the geographical area was bounded by the Nizampur Road and Bay of Bengal to the west, 1/3rd Kuki Territory to the east, the Feni River to the north and Sangu Rivers to the south. The first battle of the Raja Shermusta Khan with East India Company ensued in 1772 AD and subsequent battles with Raja Sher Dawlat Khan from 1777 to 1780 AD, it was lasted four years.

13. Raja Sher Dawlat Khan (1750-1780 AD) : In 1773 AD, Raja Sher Dawlat Khan became successors of the Royal Chakma Kingdom. He was fought with the British from 1777 to 1780 AD, and lasted for four years.

14. Raja Jan Box Khan (1757-1787 AD): In 1780 AD, Raja Jan Bux Khan, became successors of the Kingdom. In 1782 AD, Raja Jan Bux Khan and his Supreme-General Rono Khan formally battles against the British East India Company. Finally, he was compelled to signed a “Peace Treaty” in 1787 AD, which named as “Cotton Treaty” with the East India Company at Fort William in Calcutta. The war was ended when the British had imposed an economic blockade and forced the Chakma Raja Jan Bux Khan for a negotiation settlement. This was the beginning of the British hegemony over the Royal Chakma Kingdom.

The subject matter of the treaty between the Governor General of British and the Chakma Raja Jan Bux Khan was as follows: (1) The East India Company recognised Jan Bux Khan as the Raja of the Royal Chakma Kingdom; (2) It was agreed that the collection of revenue was the responsibility of Raja; (3) The British government would preserve Chakma Autonomy and migration from the plains; (4) Jan Bux Khan was bound by the treaty to maintain peace in his Royal Chakma Kingsom; (5) British troops would remain in the Royal Chakma Kingdom not to terrify the Chakmas but to protect the land from the inroads of the fierce tribes.

15. Raja Tabur Khan ( 1765-1798 AD) : In 1787 AD, Raja Tabur Khan became King in the Royal Chakma Kingdom.

16. Raja Jabbar Khan (1767-1815 AD): In 1798 AD, he became successors of the Royal Chakma Kingdom.

17. Raja Dharam Bux Khan (1794-1831 AD): In 1815 AD, he became successors of the Kingdom.

18. Raja Shukdev Roy (1810-1851 AD) : In 1831 AD, became successor of the Royal Chakma Kingdom. The Royal Palace was located at Rajanagar of Rangunia. According to archaeological evident that a Royal Buddhist Temple named “Dharma Chakra Vihar” was established in 1750 AD at Rajanagar by the Chakma Raja Shukdev Roy.

19. Queen Kalindi Rani (1830-1873 AD) : In 1851 AD, she became first Chakma Queen in the Royal Chakma Kingdom under the British East India Company. In 1852 AD, she was established Ranir Pond (now Raja Hat) at Rajanagar. During her rule on June 20, 1860 AD, the Royal Chakma Kingdom was divided into two parts as Chadigang (Chittagong) and Chittagong Hill Tracts-CHT or Parbatya Chittagong by the British East India Company without her concerned( Notification No 3302). Former part is known as “ Chadigang or Chittagong” which was included into Bengal as a regulated district and later part is known as CHT Region, which was retained as non-regulated district with a limited Autonomy under the Governor-General of British India. Since than the Chittagong district separated from the Royal Chakma Kingdom and administration gone from the hand of Chakma Rani Kalindi. Queen Kalindi was strongly resisted against the British decision on the creation of CHT Region. In 1864 AD, she was invited to Venerable Saramitra Mahathera of Arakan to established Bhikkhu Sangha lineage in the Royal Chakma Kingdom. By Royal patronage, Venerable visited along with a group of Sangha member an organised Upasampada ordination at Chadigang and Rangamati. More than 20 Buddhist monks took higher ordination from Chakma and Marma communities. Since than Theravada Buddhism is existed in the Kingdom. According to historical evident that 117 years (1757-1874 AD), Rajanagar of Rangunia was the capital city of the Kingdom and was by the Chakma Raja’s independently.

20. Raja Pagla Mama Daroga ( 1834-1874 AD): In 1873 AD, Raja Pagla Mama Daroga became King in the Kingdom for one year.

21. Raja Harish Chandra Roy Bahadur (1853-1876 AD) : In 1874 AD, Raja Harish Chandra Roy Bahadur became successor of the the Kingdom. He was transferred the capital from Rajanagar of Rangunia to Rangamati in 1874 AD.

22. Raja Bhuvan Mohan Roy (1856-1934 AD) : In 1876 AD, Raja Bhuvan Mohan Roy, son of Raja Harish Chandra Roy Bahadur became Raja of the Royal Chakma Kingdom.

23. Raja Nalininako Roy (1902-1952 AD) : In 1934 AD, Raja Nalininako Roy, son of Raja Bhuvan Mohan Roy became Raja in the Kingdom.

24. Raja Tridiv Roy (1933- ) : In 1952 AD, Raja Tridiv Roy, son of Raja Nalininako Roy became Raja in the Royal Chakma Kingdom. In 19 47 AD, he was fled to Pakistan for political reason. He is still living in Pakistan.

25. Raja Devashis Roy (1959- ): In 1947 AD, after fled Raja Tridiv Roy to Pakistan, his son Raja Devashis Roy became Raja in the Royal Chakma Kingdom. Since 1947 AD, to till today, he is the Chakma Raja in the Royal Chakma Kingdom. His son, Prince Tribhuwan Arydev Roy was born in 1990 AD. Unfortunately, his wife Rani Tatu Roy was died in 1998 AD, for cancer at Dakha Medical College in Bangladesh.

References

1.History of Sri Sri Rajnama and Chakma Dynasty
2. Sunil Chatterjee. History of Ancient India.
3. – History of Chakma Dynasty – Raja Bhuban Mohan Roy.
4. –Chakma Jati – Satish Chandra Ghosh .