All our knowledge is founded on, and ultimately derived from experience. The two sources of all on ideas are sensation, through which the mind is furnished with sensible qualities and reflection,or internal sense, which supplies the mind with Ideas of its own operations ,such as perception, thinking, doubting, believing, reasoning, knowing, willing.
Meaning of knowledge:
Every man has a desire that know, but the first half is for interest, the other for show.A man of the best parts and greatest learning ,if he does not know the world by his own experience and observation. Will he very absurd, and consequently very unwelcome in company.He may say very good things, but they will he probably so ill-timed, misplaced or improperly addressed, that he had much better hold his tongue.
There are three classes of people in the world.The first learn from their own experience-these are wise, the second learn from the experience of others-these are the happy; the third neither learn from their own experience nor from the experience of others-these are fools.
Knowledge without common sense”, says Lee,” is folly; without method,it is waste; without kidness, it is fanaticism; without religion,it is death”. But with common sense,it is wisdom ; with method it is power ;with charity ,it is beneficence; with religion,it is virtue ,life and peace”. Every addition to true knowledge is an addition to humans power. Generally the word known is used is three meanings:
1. Acquaintance: when we are acquainted with some person then we think that we have knowledge about that person.but the whole knowledge is not related with mere acquaintance. If we want to know about a person,we can get the knowledge about him with the other sources also.
2. Ability to do something: Sometimes the world knowledge is used in term of ability to do some things. As a teacher teaches,a swam swims. The term ability means the efficiency to do some work.
3. Propositional knowledge: This type of meaning is important in the area of philosophy.when we say that we know it mean we know something, as I know teaching, our mother tongue is Hindi, is proportional knowledge.
Types of knowledge:
Knowledge always appears in the form of judgement in which something is affirmed or denied ,but not every judgement is knowledge .In broader sense knowledge is of two types:
2. Empirical or a posteriori
1.A priori knowledge: There are such judgement never doubted for a moment .we find them in the basic principles of physics and in mathematics.The existence of such knowledge is in metaphysics.There is no causal judgement without a mind thinking in terms of cause and effect. To be knowledge, a synthetic judgement must be necessary and it must be universal i.e. Admit of no exception. universality and necessity have their source not in sensation or perception, but in reason, is the understanding itself.we know without experience and in the sense prior to it – that sum of the Angel of a triangle must be equal to two right angles and that it will always be so thus analytical judgements and always a priori .we know without going to experience that all extended things are extended. Such judgement are based upon the principal of contradiction alone.
2.Empirical or a posteriori knowledge: Empirical knowledge is derived from experience. It inform us, for example, that an object has such and such properties or behaves thus or so but not that it must have these qualities. In other words,such judgement, are lacking in necessity. Reason does not compel their acceptance, as it compels the acceptance of a mathematical proposition. They are lacking In universality. We cannot say because some object of a class have certain qualities ,that all have these.this types of knowledge is not scientific. A posteriori judgement add to the knowledge. But the knowledge yielded is uncertain and problematic. This type of knowledge is gained through observation, perception, supervision and experience.
In view of Indian philosopher, Knowledge is of two types:
2 Apara vidya
1.Para Vidya: The knowledge which we get with the help of our sense organ and reasoning is known as para vidya.it is related with the outer material world. Our knowledge is the amassed thought and experience of innumerable minds.
2.Apara Vidya:The end of learning is to know God and out of that knowledge to love him, and to initiate him, as we may the nearest, by possessing our souls of the true virtue .Apara vidya is related with the knowledge about the other world i.e. spirituality. This is the highest knowledge of human nature. It is well to say “know thyself”.
1)Philosophical, sociological and economic bases of education; Dr. Rainu Gupta; Tandon publications Ludhiana.
2) Methodology of Research in Education; Kulbir Singh Sidhu; Sterling Publishers (P) Ltd.