Models of Sanskritisation:
1. Cultural Model:
Castes have been assigned high or low status according to the cultural characteristics of Hindus. The wearing of sacred thread, shunning the use of meat and liquor, observing
endogamy, prohibition of widow-marriage, observing the restrictions imposed by caste
system, worship according to the modes and methods described in the religious text books daily, an inclination and respect for religious texts and mythological stories, giving
alms and gifts, use of increase, lamp, flowers, grains and oblation at the time of worship, going to temples and on pilgrimages etc have been given sanctity in traditional culture.They are considered to be the measuring standards of sacredness and purity.
Therefore adopting in one’s life style the way of higher castes and accepting the mandates of Varnas, Ashramas, Karma and Rebirth etc and showing faith in the thoughts given in Sanskrit literature regarding religion, vice and virtue, salvation, maya and Brahma are a form of Sanskritization. In short accepting the behaviour and code of highness and purity as described in religious texts is a form of Sanskritization.
2. Varna Model:
In the Varna system the highest status is that of a Brahman followed by Kshatriya, Vaishya and Shudra. Antyaj (or the lowest) is the fifth varna which is the lowest and untouchable. At different places Brahmans, Kshatriyas or Vaishyas acquire high respect
in the society. The lower castes copy the ideals and life styles of the superior class, where Kshatriyas enjoy of ‘superiority’ their ideals are copied. Similarly where Vaishyas enjoy superiority the lower castes copy their life-style and ideals. Only the lowest castes (Antyaj) copy the Shudras. There is to say emulating the life-style or ideals of a varna on
the basis of honour and superiority enjoyed by that class is called the varna model of Sanskritization.
3. Local Model:
In every community, some castes are considered to be more respectful than others on account of their numerical or economic power. Not caring for the caste hierarchy, people rest of the community as superior or higher. This caste may be called the “master-class”
or in the language of Srinivas “the dominant caste”. In a village community, agriculturists
castes get the dominance. The lower castes copy the life style of this Dominant-caste and try to rise in status. The local dominant castes serve as the reference group model for the aspirant caste. If the locally dominant caste is a Rajput or a Baniya it will transmit the Kshatriya or Vaishya model. Thus, models of Sanskritization vary according to the