Factors facilitating Sanskritisation:
Some factors have been singled out as contributory to the process of Sanskritisation in modern India. Some of them are discussed below:
1. British Rule:
With the establishment of the British rule in India, the lower castes got more opportunities to Sanskritize themselves and subsequently raise their status as the Britishers were unmindful to this phenomenon and were least involved in the dynamic of
2. Development of Communication:
Development of road and transportation in the areas previously inaccessible accelerated the process of Sanskritisation. The railways and other improved means of communication enabled people to visit religious centres like Mathura, Dwaraka, Gaya, Kashi, Puri etc.
3. Development of the Mass Media of Communication:
The radio, the cinema, the microphone, newspaper, religious journals have been contributing to the popularization of Sanskritic values and ideologies.
4. Political Factors:
The political institution of parliamentary democracy in free India has contributed to
increased Sanskritization. Prohibition, a Sanskritic value, has been endorsed in our constitution. The ideal of equality of all men before the law and the abolition of
untouchability have spring up a culture which was the monopoly of the higher castes beforehand.
5. Educational Factor:
As a result of western education, socio-religious movements like the Arya Samaj, the Brahma Samaj and the Prathana Samajcame into being and which, in turn, contributed
much to the process of Sanskritization. Besides, spread of literacy among the low caste
groups made Sanskritization feasible.
6. Cultural Institution:
Every temple and pilgrim centre also acts as a source of Sanskritization. During the periodic festivals and other occasions when pilgrims gather at the centre they get opportunity for the spread of Sanskritic ideas and beliefs. Several other cultural
institutions such as the sanyasis and other religious mendicants also help spread ideas and beliefs of sanskritic Hinduism.
7. Economic Factor:
Better economic conditions also facilitate enhancement of the status of a caste in the local caste hierarchy. But acquisition of wealth is not always a necessary pre-condition to
Sanskritization. Srinivas has rightly cited the case of untouchable caste of Mysore who got itself sanskritized even though its economic position remained almost fixed. However, the fact is that Sanskritization becomes easy if economic power is acquired.
8. Sectarian Movements:
Sectarian movements also acted as agents of Sanskritization and when they attracted members from the low castes, they helped raise their status. For example the Bhakti movement geared by the saints embraced all people into its fold ignoring diversities of cults and castes and thereby proved a great sanskritizing force.