Effects of Sanskritization on Social Change: If Indian culture is chiefly confined to the cultural ideals of twice-born Varnas (Brahmans,
Kshatriya and Vaishyas), then we may say that the process of Sanskritization is going on for a thousand years, because foreign invaders instead of spreading their own culture adopted the twice-born culture of India. That is the reason that there is no sign of Salukas who was the successor of Sikander the Great coming from Greece. The Shuk and Huns foreigners who were considered to be low caste or class either by religion or by culture, adopted Indian culture and become Sanskritized. Muslims and Britishers got political hold hence they had no need to Sanskritize.
1. Sanskritization in Religious field:
Lower castes have erected their own temples like twice born castes they have put the status of their own Great men along with the idols of God and Goddess. Many of them put on sacred thread. They go to their temples regularly and perform Arti and Bhajan. They have engaged priests of their own caste. In temples belonging to the middle castes, even Brahman priests are engaged. They perform ceremonies like twice-born castes.
Sacrifices and Hawan are performed on the naming ceremony of children.
The custom of observing fast has increased. They celebrate all festivals like twice-born varnas. They are
advancing towards cleanliness. They have left prohibited food. They also do not like dirty occupations. They take care of the cleanliness of their clothes and utensils. The Hinduization of Tribal castes is an example of religious Sanskritization. The members of middle castes have become office holders of different religious institutions. They have specialized in performing ceremonies like Brahmins.
2. Sanskritization in Social field:
The social aspect of Sanskritization is more important from the viewpoint of change. Sanskritization appears to be more closely related to religious system but the chief aim of
Sanskritization is social. The low caste individuals are inclined towards Sanskritization because that way they can elevate their social status and get higher up and caste-hierarchy.
They want a place equal to that of Brahmans and Kshatriyas. Not only that some castes claim to be twice-born but some of them have practically acquired that status.
3. Sanskritization in Economic field:
Sanskritization can be observed in the change of occupations also. Clean trades are a symbol of social height. In the cities of west Uttar Pradesh, Bhangis are working as vegetable and
chat hawkers. Members of backward classes are entering into higher posts. Scheduled castes and scheduled tribes get reservation in services. Twice-born or Brahmin clerks and peons work under officers belonging to scheduled castes.
4. Sanskritization in Living:
The conditions of living have also been sanskritized. Lower castes get Pucca houses built for them. They have got a drawing room like twice born castes. They are attracted towards chair. Now they sit along with higher castes on the cots without is a sense of fear or hesitation. They also keep their houses clean. They put the pictures of leaders and Hindu
gods and goddesses on the walls. They take regular bath and put on clean clothes. Formerly they remained semi-naked due to poverty or were compelled to remain so. Now they put
on dresses like higher caste and talk in the same language.
Other effects of Sanskritization:
Sanskritization has brought hardship for the lower caste women. Prior to Sanskritization, they were following the caste codes which were not so much rigid. But as they got sanskritized they imitated the sex and marriage codes of the Brahmins which were harassing. For example, pre-puberty marriage, ban on widow remarriage, shaving the hair of widow etc. were copied from the
Brahmins by the ambitious lower castes.
Second, Sanskritization has significant effects on conjugal relation. At times a wife is enjoined to practise the ideal of Pativrata and show extreme fidelity to the husband.
Third, Sanskritization has prompted the untouchable castes to give up the consumption of liquor, beef, domestic pork or toddy. On this basis Srinivas predicts that “in the next twenty or thirty years the culture of untouchables all over the country will have undergone profound changes.”