Disintegration of Joint Family:
1. Industrialization: The joint family system is most suited to agricultural families. India today is on the way to industrialization. With the establishment of new factories in
urban areas workers from the villages move to the cities which breaks the joint family.
2. Extension of communications and transport: Because of the improvements in the means of communication and transport, family members have become mobile in
search of jobs etc.; it is no longer necessary for men to stay with the family. Now they move out to cities and take up any other occupation.
3. Decline of agriculture and village trades: The joint family system in India flourished in ancient times when agriculture and trade in the villages were in a sound position. With the migration of people from the villages to the cities, the Hindu joint family system breaks down. Besides, the decline of agriculture and cottage industry, there are other causes as well which induce people to move to the city.
In the villages, there are fewer facilities for entertainment and recreation, less opportunities for employment for the educated and inadequate opportunities for the education of children. A gentleman so called finds little attraction to stay on in the village.
4. Impact of the west: India has been greatly influenced in her social outlook by western thought and ideology. The modern laws relating to marriage and divorce have been
enacted on western pattern. The impact of West is felt in the domain of education, polity, legislature, bureaucracy and judiciary.
5. New social legislations: The joint family system in India has been influenced by a series of new social legislations like Civil Marriage Act (1872). Hindu Marriage Act
(1955), and Hindu Succession Act (1956). The Civil Marriage Act enabled the adult boys and girls to marry against the wishes of their parents. The Hindu Marriage Act enabled the women to seek divorce under certain conditions. The Hindu Succession
Act gave the right of equal inheritance to women. All these acts have influenced the solidarity of the joint family and relationships between brothers and sisters, parents
and children and husbands and wives.
6. Enlightenment of women: The increasing enlightenment due to education and employment has made women empowered. They are not ready to accept things uncritically. They refuse to accept inequality, exploitation and subordination in the
family on irrational grounds. Conflicts in the family are endemic.
7. Over population: India has witnessed a phenomenal growth of population, which has led to a tremendous pressure on land. As a result of this pressure, the land holdings of many families have become un-economical and many farmers have joined the ranks
of landless labourers. The situation in the villages has come to such a pass that agriculture no longer provides employment to the ever-increasing number of people depending on it. This has resulted in the disintegration of joint family in two ways.
Firstly, the small and uneconomic land holdings cannot support large families, like the joint family.
Secondly, the poor and the unemployed leave their homes and farms in search of employment elsewhere. When they get employment in distant places, they naturally setup their separate families there and gradually severe the links with their joint families.
8. Problem of accommodation: Another factor adversely affecting joint family structure in India is the problem of accommodation. This problem is so acute in the large cities
that members of a joint family find it difficult to live together in spite of their desire to do so.