Meaning of Educational Guidance:

Educational guidance is a process of assisting the individual student to reach optimum educational
development. It is a process concerned with the assistance given to pupils in their choices and adjustments with relation to schools, curriculums, courses and school life. Counsellors who confine themselves merely to choices are merely scratching the surface. Very little is achieved unless every student is provided with an environment conducive to his own best development.

Educational guidance is directly concerned with the pupil. In the student life, educational guidance
is very important. The chief aim of educational guidance is to develop the ability of coordinating with the school environment in the pupils and to create necessary awareness and sensitivity so that they may select themselves proper learning objectives devices and situations. If we study and analyse Indian conditions, then we shall find the educational guidance is more needed in Indian conditions. Therefore, guidance is considered an integral part of education because educational guidance is viewed in the context of child’s growth.”

The choice of a career is undeniably one of the most crucial decisions one makes in life. The irony is that such an important decision is often made quite early in the life of an individual and is sometimes made without giving as much though to it as is often given to such things as buying
a necktie or a pair of shoes. The choice of work determines how an individual’s time is going to
be spent, what type of people he will associate with, what kind of place he will have to work and live in and a host of each very important things. Naturally a career should be chosen with utmost care, thought and planning. Often in the matter of vocational choice, an individual may find himself unequal to the task, or in a dilemma to choose one or the other, or be totally in the dark. All such individuals require assistance called vocational counseling. If vocational counseling were made an integral part of he total educational process, it would be most meaningful, helpful
and useful to the individual.

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Meaning of Educational Guidance
The term ‘Educational Guidance’ consists of two words — Education and Guidance. Therefore, it
is essential to understand the meaning of ‘Education’ and ‘Guidance’. The meaning of ‘educational guidance’ can be best understood and explained.
The term ‘Educational Guidance ’ is very broad and comprehensive. It is very difficult to give a comprehensive and universal interpretation. It is very commonly used term. There is separate dictionary of Educational Guidance. Some important meanings of this term have been enumerated and stated in the following paragraph :

(1) Educational Guidance as a process of development.
(2) Educational Guidance as Teachers-Training.
(3) Educational Guidance as independent field of Study or Content or Subject of Study.
(4) Educational Guidance as an investment.
(5) Educational Guidance as an instrument of social change and social control.
(6) Educational Guidance as a creature and creator of the society.
(7) Educational Guidance as Filter in Democracy.
(8) Educational Guidance is for future or futurology.

The third meaning ‘Educational Guidance ’ as an independent field of study or subject is important
from research point of view. In the research an independent field of study is known as discipline which is commonly denoted by term subject. The subject word is used for an individual in the research terminology.

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NEEDS OF EDUCATIONAL GUIDANCE:

(1) To Solve Wastage and Stagnation Problems : Most of the wastage occurs at the primary
stage of education. It is found that many children get admission in primary education. They go to school for some period, but due to one or the other reasons they fail to complete their primary education and their parents withdraw them from the school due to their financial
problems.

Similarly, the problem of stagnation has become equally serious. Pupils stick to one educational level for more than desired duration. Its reason may be any—such as, illiteracy of parents, narrow attitude of parents, unsatisfactory, economic condition of parents, shortage of sufficient schools, lack of favourable environment in schools etc. The problems of wastage
and stagnation are more frequent in rural areas as compared to urban areas.

(2) Appropriate Selection of Subjects : At present, the comprehensiveness of the curriculum
and multiplicity of subjects are an indication of expansion and enrichment of the knowledge.
From psychological view-point, if we observe an individual or a pupil, we see that all individuals or pupils are not alike with regard to intelligence levels, interest and aptitude.
If the selection of subjects and curriculum does not occur according to their intellectual level, their interests and aptitudes, the pupils fail to gain that much success in that subject or curriculum which they should have.

Sometimes high expectations of the pupils or their parents encourage them for the wrong selection of the curriculum or subjects, such as many pupils try to achieve very unsatisfactorily in science subjects, but their achievement level increases appreciably in arts subjects.

(3) Adjustment in School : The problem of adjustment is very deep. No one can make desirable
progress in any field without proper adjustment However, maladjustment may lead to damages.

Whenever any pupil enters as new school he has to face adjustment problem first of all. For example, if a pupil moves from Hindi medium school to English medium school, then it becomes difficult for him to adjust in that environment because of much difference in language as well as teaching methods.

(4) Information about Future Education : The entering behaviours of pupils must be studied in order to enter any level of education. If these behaviours are identified properly, only then the pupils can be guided properly for their future education. The parents and the pupils
with that they should be guided properly in order to enter from one level to the other level of education so that the pupils may prepare themselves for selecting their higher education and entering those courses. Such a situation comes usually after high school or (+2) stage. Guidance given at this stage changes the entire life of a pupil.

(5) Providing the Awareness of Various Opportunities : In our country, many five year plans
were prepared after independence. For various trainings and many courses were increased
appreciably in these plans. In order to provide the knowledge of such opportunities, the existence of education guidance services is very essential. The pupils are gaining one type of education. They don’t know the scope of that education. This has created the problem of
unemployment in the country and now this problem has become so much uncontrolled that the other plans of the country have become imbalanced. Every vocation is related to some specific curriculum and subjects. Knowledge of such vocations and subjects must be provided
to the pupils.

(6) Making Busy in Learning Activities : If the pupil is not kept busy in the learning process,
the sequence of the learning process will break up. That pupil will lag behind the other pupils. In order to keep the pupil busy, the motivation of the pupil plays a very important
role. By motivating the pupils for learning their achievement level also increases.

(7) Change in School Administration and Teaching Methods : On one side, knowledge expanded in the field of education, while on the other side important changes have taken place in
school organisation, administration and teaching methods. In educational administration, narrow mindedness has been replaced by broad mindedness these days. Formerly, education was merely a process of intellectual development but these days, knowledge is being
considered as a means of solving individual and social problems.

(8) Identify Reasons for Increasing Percentage of Delinquents : When a person deviates from the social norms, he is termed as a delinquent.
In view of above discussion, educational guidance is required for the following reasons :

(1) Due to individual differenes.
(2) Selecting study courses or subjects.
(3) Adjustment of students in the school.

(4) To Solve the problem of wastage and stagnation in education.
(5) Providing awareness for future job opportunities.
(6) Awareness about the vocations.

(7) Organizing co-curricular activities.
(8) Helping slow learners and under achievers.
(9) Causes for unsuccessful students.

(10) Solving the problem of indiscipline.
(11) Providing remedial instruction for teaching-learning.

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Nature of Educational Guidance:

The nature of educational guidance is stated in the following terms :
(1) Educational Guidance is Administered to Students : Out of the many problems that the students is often faced with, there are some that he fails to solve of his own accord, and they do not even admit of any fruitful assistance from the teachers or the parents. Solution of
these problems calls for the intervention of the specialist, and this specialist is none other than the psychologist.

(2) Intended for Educational Selection : One part of the student’s education consists in making
a variety of selections, the first of them being the kind of college or school in which he would like to be educated. Another problem that confronts him is the choice of the subjects that he wishes to study.

(3) Rendered for Adjustment in Education : A student finds a peculiar atmosphere in the college, the like of which he cannot find outside, and he has to adjust himself to his atmosphere. This atmosphere is a composite of his friends, teachers, daily routine of the institution,
method of teaching, curriculum, subjects taught, extracurricular programmes etc. This environment is the same for every individual students, whatever his personal capability or drawback. One student finds the teaching tertribly dull while his more enterprising partner
runs away from school. Another child might find himself tired most of the time while another is constantly bored stiff. Some of them indulge in systematically destroying discipline
while others turn of crime and delinquency.

(4) Making Education as Child-Centred : It is the educational guidance which makes the
educational process as child-centred. The selection of courses and instructional stratigies are
used according to the need and requirement of child.

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Objectives of Educational Guidance:

The scope of educational guidance, as we have said above, is as wide as that of educations with a number of objectives. Some of the objectives which as minimum programme of educational guidance should achieve are given below :

1. Assisting students in understanding the purpose and the function of the school in relation to their needs.

2. Assisting students in discovering all that the school has to offer and plan a programme of studies accordingly. These objectives can be achieved through an orientation programme.

3. Assisting students in discovering their strengths and weaknesses : their assets and liabilities. How much ability do they possess to learn ? If they take up work much beyond their ability to learn they are likely to meet failures and frustrations. If they take up work much below their ability, their will be loss of human resources as their potentialities remained under
utilised / unutilised.

4. Assisting students to discover themselves, i.e., their interests aptitudes, attitudes and, other
personality characteristics. Knowledge of one’s scholastic aptitudes is necessary for planning
and educational career in much the same way as knowledge of one’s vocational aptitutdes is necessary to make a choice of vocation. These objectives can be achieved through
psychological testing or non standardised tools of guidance, e.g., anecodotal record, case history, autobiography, rating scales, teacher observation.

5. Assisting students in discovering educational opportunities in the school. The same is true of occupational openings as well.

6. Assisting students in gathering information about cocurricular activities that are being carried
out in the school.

7. Assisting students in collecting information about different courses, curricula, schools, training school, vocational schools. These objectives can be achieved through school’s
educational information services, group guidance classes, group counseling and individual
counseling.

8. Assisting students in the selection of courses, curriculums, extracurricular activities, best
suited to their abilities, interests, aptitudes and, personality characteristics.

9. Selecting students in the selection of books and methods of study.

10. Assisting students through group guidance and group counseling to help remove their difficulties in learning.

11. Assisting students in developing work and study habits that enable then achieve satisfactory success in studies.

12. Assisting students in trying out courses and exploratory courses in order to gain an insight into learning areas that still lie ahead.

13. Assisting students in participating in cocurricular activities, group work, social service activities so that qualities of leadership my be developed.

14. Assisting students in finding out the requirements of entrance to a college or to a vocational school of one’s choice.

15. Assisting past students in adjusting themselves to the new environment and new social life.

16. Assisting students who are about to leave the school, in ascertaining the possibility and desirability of further schooling.

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