Concept of Special Education :
Special education is a modified programme which involves some
unique tools, techniques and research efforts in improving instructional
arrangements to meet the need of exceptional children. It is not a total
different programme which is assigned for the normal children. But it adds a sort of design proposed to assist the gifted children, physically and mentally handicapped and socially retarded children. As it is a planned and systematically mentioned arrangement, majority of average children are not grouped into this category of education.
Special education can be provided in general schools with some special arrangement or in special schools the early history of special education was largely a history of separate schools; especially for children who were blind or deaf, whatever the problem, the solution was to put the child in a class with other children having similar problems. This was nothing but to exclude the handicapped from the main stream of the society. Thus separate, became only one of the meanings associated with special education. But as society’s response to the handicapped began gradually to shift away from education critics of
special classes, began to express doubts and there came special
In accelerating the special education programme, extra time may be devoted by the same teacher or by an expert in the concerning field when a project is taken for a delinquent child the child may be directed to attend his regular classes. He should also participate all the curricular and co-curricular activities carried out by the school. In addition to this he may be assigned with extra consultation hours in the school with the counsellor or school guidance officer or with the specific teacher to go through his special problems. The children with some difficulties may be included in this class but there is no necessity for the ordinary children to attend it. With such kind of designed programmes the exceptional children achieve a great deal success in their personal and academic endeavours.
Objective of Special Education:
1. To develop motivational patterns in the handicapped that will
produce achievement in school.
2. To develop a realistic self-concept in handicapped children.
3. To reach the maximum level of effectiveness in school subjects.
4. To pursue those curricular matters that strategically determine
effective living or specific types of handicapped children.
5. To consider the mental as well as the physical hygiene of handicapped school children.
6. To produce in the handicapped a desire to participate in the activities of non-handicapped persons.
Need and importance of Special Education:
1. The special education helps both the average children and exceptional children in special classes.
2. The gifted children are not satisfied in the normal classes. They
do not and scope to exercise their cognitive abilities. They also
feel the tasks very easy and complete it very soon than others for
which they show behavioural problems. But their talent is daly
recognised and the development of skills and potentialities take
their full shapes while they are included in homogenous groups
with a special treatment.
3. Sometimes the hearing impaired, visually impaired, orthopaedically handicapped and mentally retarded need special treatment. So special education helps them to keep pace with the academical activities are with their environment.
4. Special education is not only useful the exceptional children it assist the teacher to know the leaders and their learning difficulties.
5. Special education stimulates the children to participate in different
co-curricular activities. This type of involvement provides the
children to highlight their leadership qualities and creative urges.
6. Special education tends the children to a fresh their intellectual
abilities and know the various streams of knowledge, which they
feel difficult in normal class situation.
7. Due to facilities including special building features special
equipment and special literary materials, special education
prompts the children to be more motivated. It develops readiness
and cowardness in learning.
8. As the different personals like teacher educators, consultants,
psychotherapists, speech therapists and others are involved in this special education programme the learning becomes more meaningful and permanent. It wipes out the various emotional problems of the children and make them more alert and quick in their thinking process.
9. Special education helps teacher to implement new methods,
procedures tools and techniques in educational situations.
10. Special education condemns the interiority complex among the
children. They also get more freedom to work together and achieve their goals.