Meaning of Integrated Education :
Integrated education facilitates the learning of the disabled children with specialised service in general schools when were think about the special education, the gifted and the other exceptional children get knowledge through special programme arranged. These children remain isolated from the normal classroom learners. But it is psychologically, socially, economically and educationally unhealthy. It creates inferiority complex among the disabled learners for which to segregate disabled children from other children of the community has been a controversial issue. So the psychologists and the
educationists has viewed to design the integrated education.
In our country the realisation of universalisation of primary
education irrespective of caste, sex creed, economic status and region
is a commitment enshrined in the constitution. But with drop out rate
ranging around 77% enrolment by itself, looses its meaning except as a
frame of reference. The obstacles in the way cannot be abandoned
here. The reasons that the country lacks success in its educational
process are poverty, irrelevance of educational content. Unavailability of
women teachers and allocation of inadequate resources. For which,
new approaches such as setting up part-time and non-formal education centres have been proposed to provide flexibility in the school routine to the non-attending children.
In spite of various scopes opened for achieving the objectives of
providing equality of educational opportunity all the children, different
factors are still unsolved in the case of the backward communities and
disabled children. It has been felt that the weaker section of the society,
the physically and mentally handicapped children can get proper
guidance and motivation for learning through integrated children.
Definitions of Integrated Education :
1. Indian Education Commission (1964-66) : The commission emphasized that the education of Handicapped children should be an “inseparable part of the general education system”.
2. Namgayel (1985) :
“Integrated education refers to meaningful involvement of children
with disabilities into on-going regular education programme to the
extent feasible and beneficial in a given instance, with the ultimate goal being optimal, academic, social as well as personal learning of each child”.
Objectives of Integrated Education :
1. To prompt the children for early stimulation.
2. To promote the educational provisions to meet the social and
3. To alert the children to be independent in their daily living skills and abilities.
4. To facilitate community education for healthy attitude.
5. To pave the ways for availability of habitation and rehabilitation
6. To prevent the child hood disabilities.
7. To diagnose the disabilities of the children easily and as early as
8. To prepare the children for economic independence.
9. To develop democratic values in the children.
10. To develop self-confidence and courage to meet the challenges
11. To make the education more meaningful and useful for all.
12. To determine the welfare of the individuals well as nation.
13. To provide the equal opportunities but not the identical opportunities to each one to develop to the limit his capacities.
14. To give a start to the skills and potentialities the disabled children
in different fields.
15. To make the disabled children psychological socially
economically and educationally sound.
Characteristics of Integrated Education :
1. Integrated education provides mainstream facilities for all
2. It is a viable approach for achieving the objective of providing
equality of educational opportunity to the disbled children.
3. It provides broader scopes to the disabled to live in a social world.
4. It helps to develop the individually experience.
5. It emphasises on the special needs of disabled children.
6. It provides education to blind, deaf, epileptic, speech, handicaps,
mentally, handicaps and physically handicaps, with some special
7. The integrated education involves both the handicapped and non handicapped children in its system.
8. It provides special education to the disabled children in normal
school for whom it is very essential.
9. Integrated education is improved school atmosphere.
10. It provides a natural environment for interaction with non-disabled
peers, to learn to cope with the environment and to be accepted
by their peers.
Scope of Integrated Education :
1. Growth and development :- Gasell believed that the best way to
understand problems of development is to gain a precise idea of
normal development with which comparisons can be mide. In this
context integrated education helps the handicapped children who
are pregressing slowly, to learn the appropriate skill which should
be next to develop. Through the help of checklist, we can also be
able to chart the development of children note abnormalities
patterns of maturation and thus in difficulties when they arise in
an early stage.
2. Environmental factors :- The child’s growth is governed by
natural, in the process of the maturing nervous system. Through
integrated education stress is paid to environmental functors
which may influence development. The handicapped children
encounter the social and learning problems which create
hindrances in shaping their personality more generous in the
community. So through the rapeutic care the sensitive under
standing of children’s feeling and the empathetic awareness of
the way they perceive their difficulties can be marked clearly.
3. Cognitive development :- The handicapped children to their
disability miss out the necessary experiences for forming certain
concepts. In normal schools they develop the necessary experiences for forming certain concepts. In normal schools they develop the necessary conceptual frame work mixing with the nonhandicapped children, by variety of play experiences,
discussions, curricular and co-curricular activities. A piagetion
approach to learning difficulties would therefore tress we should
first look at the child’s conceptual under standing and choose
suitable tasks and learning experiences accordingly. In many
cases there is a mismatch between what the child can understand and what is expected of him. Therefore the teachers must understand at what stage of thinking a handicapped child is operating and structure learning so that the child can make sense
of his environment.
4. Behavioural problem :- Learning is viewed in terms of habitual
responses. It is maintained that learnined behaviour is a function
of consequences the handicapped children when mixed with the
normal children should not be restricted to age group or type of
disability. In integrated education system they avail wide scopes
to develop their own habits and when it gets gratification through
reinforcement or rewards on behalf of the teachers and non-
handicapped children. They make it more like to occur again in
future. Many home and class room behaviour of the disabled with
precise behavioural analysis. Clear objectives and a carefully
worked our of system reinforcements are diagnosed and improved. It is also enough to analyse what satisfaction he is getting or failing to get from the present situation and change
5. Interpersonal relationships :- When a child is described as a
disabled one he may perceive himself as having a problem, his peers may think of him as a troublemaker and his teachers will interpret all they see and hear of him in these terms. Though integrated education system the specialists may pick him out to assess and study and the child will be pressurised by a variety of
unspoken expectations about the way he should behave. The
Interactionalists like Cohen (1971), Becker (1977) and Hargreaves (1967), fo this reason, stress that an explanation of deviant behaviour must be sought in terms of the social context and the childs interpersonal relationship. It has been claimed that
in lebelling or categorising a child in such a way as to denote he
has a problem one immediately becomes the creator of it. So the
problems in social context of the handicapped can be treated in
the best way when these are ignored by their normal peers and
teachers in an ordinary school.
6. Guidance and Counselling :- The modern integrated education
trend has made the disabled children to be away from the special
or separate classes. It does not denote that special provisions should be abandoned if they will be admitted to an ordinary school. But there must be special units or classes or an ordinary
school or a special school on the same site. The handicapped children must prevail the normal education among the non handicapped and in some extra classes or specific hours they
should earn knowledge to provoke their skills and learn some
techniques how to adjust in the environment. Many counselling
techniques and psychotherapeutic methods may be adopted to
treat the problems of the child. Moreover the child must be
allowed to explore and express his feelings and develop a positive awreenss of self, if personal growth and adjustment is to be possible.
Problems of Integrated Education :
1. Lack of co-operation of the parents.
2. Lack of the initiatives of the headmaster and other teachers.
3. Lack of interest of the teachers for quality education to the disable.
4. Non acceptance of the disable by the peer group and the teachers.
5. Lack of interest to enrolled the disable children.
6. Lack of community members.
7. Lack of provision of proper funds for the disability.
8. Lack of the interest of the resource teachers to visit the school.
9. Lack of provisions of resource rooms in the school.
10. Lack of co-ordination between parents and teachers.
Education provision for the handicraft in Integrated
When the disabled children rush in a great number into the ordinary schools, adequate facilities should be provided to them. Even
the identification and assessment of their disability, qualitative
improvement of education training of specialist teachers and provision
of specialised help should ensured in integrated schools. Advantages of
the educational provisions for the integrated education system is
discussed below :
1. When the handicapped children learn in a normal school, they get
the scope to mix with their per groups who are non-disabled. This
environment develops a healthy atmosphere for personal, social
and emotional development.
2. In a special school to deal with the disabled children costly
equipments are required. It may be difficult to arrange all types of
resource materials for all types of retarded children due to scanty
funds. So in a normal school the teacher can teach the disabled
children using the stock materials which escape to spare more
amount for the handicapped.
3. The teacher does not accept the handicapped children as he
thinks to meritorious and talented children of normal school. So
giving admission to the disabled children into general schools,
this kind of notion may be thrown out from the mind of the
4. When teaching the disabled children in normal school the teacher
should try to develop the class environment which will suit to
them. Children who have defects in their eye sight or those who
cannot listen well may be arranged by the teacher in front
5. Like wise the slow learners may be helped in the class room
situation by the teacher. Slow learners are below the average
children and they do not possess physical problems so repetition,
over learning and vividly comprehension may help to these
6. The teacher should not anticipate the same behaviour from the
handicapped as he desires from the normal children. The teacher
will give the work load to the disabled children according to their
abilities, interests and skills which develop their self confindence
7. In integrated education system the teacher will give reinforcement
to the disabled children to carry out a problem and when they get
success they must be rewarded. It develops their sound personality and they became more inspired to solve their difficulties in personal and academic spheres.