Meaning and Definition of Institutional Planning:

Institutional planning is the lowest level of national planning. The term implies that this type of planning is related to educational institution. This plan refers to the detailed programme
of action that is initiated, formulated and implemented by individual educational institution.Thus, the member of the institution gets the opportunity to take part in planning process.

In regard to the concept of institutional planning, M.B.Buch (1964) defines, โ€œInstitutional
planning is a programme of development and improvement prepared by an educational
institution on the basis of its felt needs and the resources available or likely to be available, with
a view to improving the school programme and school practices, constitutes a plan for an
institution. It is based on the principle of optimum utilisation of the resources available in the
school and the community.โ€

The above definition signifies that (i) Institutional planning is a programme prepared for development and improvement of school programme and school practices of the educational institution. Here, school programme means the curriculum and the syllabus used in teaching-
learning process. (i) School practice means the entire teaching-learning process of the institution i.e.
teaching method, strategy, skill, model, lesson plan. (ii) Institutional planning is prepared by the
educational institution itself (iii) this planning is prepared keeping view on the needs felt by the
institution (iv) It is a plan for an institution (v) This plan gives importance to utilise available
resources at best possible in the school and the community.

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Characteristics of Institutional Planning:

After going thoroughly the concept and definition of institutional planning, the following main characteristics of the planning are determined.

a) Institutional planning is the basic unit of educational planning. It begins from grass root level.

b) Institutional planning is goal-oriented. It aims to improve the quality of educational institution. It is prepared on the basis of its own development and improvement.

c) It is task oriented. Because, it needs co-operative working culture in the institution.

d) The teaching and non-teaching staff, parents, students, supervisor officers and other educationists in the locality takes part in institutional planning. Local community is also part of this planning.

e) Institutional planning is prepared to achieve within a fixed period of time. It may be short-term or long-term duration.

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Need of Institutional Planning:

The necessities of institutional planning are as follows:

1) Improvement of Educational Institution: The significance of institutional planning is
to develop and improve the programme of school or college. Institutional planning is
systematic, adequate and clear. This planning is systematic because it leads to achieve at the objectives following organized steps. It is also sufficient and satisfactory for the
institution. It plans the daily class routine, academic calendar; maintain record books and examination system etc. This planning is repeated in the same school from term to term
and from session to session.

2) Proper Direction to Educational Planning: Institutional planning gives the right direction to the educational planning in the country. Because, the general educational planning is based on institutional planning. The administrators, teachers, parents, students, educationists and social reformers are involved in decision making and formulation of Institutional planning. Hence, it can be expected to attain at effective
educational planning.

3) Maximum Utilization of Resources: Institutional planning ensures use of local resources and other resources available in the institution. Local resource means locally available physical and human resources found nearby the school or college. This planning emphasize on involvement of local people situated nearby the institution. So, it leads to use the available resources at optimum level so that the scarcity of resources can be avoided.

4) Contribution to National Development: Institutional planning has a unique role to build the Nation. We have known that educational planning is the ingredient of the
overall national planning and institutional planning is the grass root level of educational planning. So, it can be elicited that the plan and programme of institutional planning is important and vital for development of the country.

5) Encouragement to Individual Teacher: Individual teacher of the institution are benefitted from institutional planning. They get the opportunity for creative thinking and
motivated towards work. Thus, the work of the institution may be effective.

6) Democratization of Planning: Democracy provides all people equal opportunity to take part in decision making and administration of the institution. Institutional planning is a
decentralized process. The students, the teachers, the parents and the head of the institution take part in this planning process. So, it democratizes the process of planning.

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Purpose of Institutional Planning:

The purposes of educational planning are stated below. Let us study it.

(i) Autonomy: The main purpose of institutional planning is to give autonomy to the institution to take decision regarding aims and objectives of the school or college, to fulfill the needs for improvement of the institution, to determine some successful attempt to achieve at
realistic and practicable goals and to plan its overall development.

(ii) Stability: Another purpose of institutional planning is to give stability to the institution. Stability means steadiness and permanence of the institution. Stable situation help to done each work of the institution smoothly, continuously and in a planned and systematic
manner. Thus, the policies, programmes and procedures of the institution can be improved.

(iii) Solution to Problems: The functions of educational institution can be made easy and smooth by creating a healthy cooperative working environment and mutual understanding among staffs. The teaching and non-teaching staff of the institution cooperatively works for
making solution to the problem of the institution. Elite group of teaching staff and merit students influence the administration of educational institution.

(iv) Educational Improvement: Institutional planning improves objectives of the institution, working condition, teaching learning process, curricular and co-curricular
programmes, evaluation etc. Thus, the capacity and efficiency of staff and students are improved.

(v) Progress: Institutional planning helps the administrator to take independent decision regarding development of entire educational system and future progress of the
institution. Thus, an institution is able to plan both long term and short term institutional planning. It ensures good foresight and vision for the school or college. Institutional planning
assured discrete identity of the institution in the society.

(vi) Utilization of Resources: Resource is the essential part of educational institution. There are three types of resources in an educational institution: physical, human and finance. Institutional planning ensures utilization of these resources properly.

(vii) Beneficial to the Local Community: An educational institution has close relation with the community. Institutional planning helps to take steps for improvement of local community. The institution helps to become aware of problems arises in society.

(viii) Contribution to General Planning: Institutional planning is the part of general educational planning. It is the lowest level of planning. It contributes to develop educational
process at local, district, state or even the national plans.

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Scope of Institutional Planning:

The scope of institutional planning included all aspects of the educational institution.

Curriculum– Curriculum is the sum total of experiences that influence the learning behavior of students within the campus of educational institution. It helps student to acquire
knowledge and to inculcate social values. Institutional planning includes within its scope the organization of the curriculum prescribed in the institution. The authority of the institution also
organize the remedial teaching for slow-learners and organize of seminars, conference etc. in the
institution for knowledge upgradation of both teachers and students. It also implements the syllabus prescribed by government or higher educational authority.

Teaching Materials โ€“ The planning involves within its scope development and utilization of instructional materials and audio-visual aids according to demand of subjects and
classes. It also includes the purchase and distribution of library books, magazines, journals, question papers of previous years etc. in the library.
Building- An educational institution has different types of rooms for different purposes. It plans to construct the classrooms, library, laboratory rooms, auditorium, teacherโ€™s room, common room for students, and separate toilet for boys and girls. It also plans to spend money
on construction, maintenance and repair of school building from time to time, whenever needed.
Drinking water facility, sanitary facilities, mid-day-meals, medical facilities etc. are other functions to be implemented by perspective planning.

Evaluation: Institutional planning covers within its scope the evaluation system of the institution. It prepares routine for internal examination including class test, unit test, half yearly examination and annual examination. The school or college also arranges two important
functions for students regarding external examination as the registration of students to higher
educational body and form fill up of students for external examination. Do you understand the term โ€˜external examinationโ€™? It refers to examination system controlled by examination body outside of the institution i.e. the question papers are set by external examination controlled body and answer scripts are also checked by teachers from outside of the institution.

Co-curricular Activities– You have known that modern education is child centered education and one of the primary function of education is harmonious development of the
students. So, it is the responsibility of the institution to make an atmosphere within the institution so that students obtain the chance to develop their physical, mental, intellectual, social and aesthetic aspect of personality. Institutional planning gives importance on building of attitude,
moral behavior. The institution should organize physical, literary and social service activities.

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Procedure of Institutional Planning:

The steps of institutional planning are as follows:

1. Analysis of Present Position: The first step of institutional planning is to survey the need and demands of the institution. The planners should verify the quality of available
physical resources as well as human resources and the teaching learning programme. So, the plan is prepared depending upon the needs of community, availability of resources
and utilization of manpower. Institutional planning should be based on the national policy, educational aims and objectives and the latest educational theory.

2. Survey of Resources: A survey is made to collect the accurate data about the resource of the institution. Besides the physical resource of the institution, government assisted funds
and social resources also strengthen the resource of the institution. Therefore, priority should be given to resources.

3. Preparation of Plan: A comprehensive plan is prepared to solve the problem of the
institution. At first, the plan is printed and time is estimated. A budget for proper cost is also prepared and the eligible person for the plan is selected. The major plan of the institution includes the following aspects:
Construction of Building, painting, maintenance, electricity facilities, teaching aids,
teaching procedures, instructional material, academic calendar, student welfare, school campus, library, laboratory, hostel, play ground, examination system etc.

4. Implementation of Plan: The fourth step of institutional planning is to implement the plan in right direction at right time. Head teacher, teachers, non-teaching staff, parents,
public, educationists and students implemented the plan in the areas of the institution. Works are specialized among people for smooth functioning of the plan.

5. Evaluation of Plan: During implementation of the institutional planning, the strength and weakness of the plan is evaluated periodically by teachers. The periodic evaluation is beneficial for planners to judge the quality of implemented functions and accomplished objectives; to correct the errors of the actions and to provide remedial measures whenever
needed.

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Limitations of Institutional Planning:

One of the limitations of institutional planning is lack of adequate knowledge among administrative bodies and teachers of a school or a college about the scientific procedure of institutional planning. In India, there is lack of awareness among teachers and administrators
about long term planning.

Sometimes lack of efficient administrator in the school or college may hamper in development of the institution. Lack of co-ordination among teachers and administrators also effect on it. The fund of the institution should be sound enough. Lack of adequate money in the
fund of the institution may slow down the functions.