Fundamental Principles of Sankhya Philosophy:
If we want to make sequence of metaphysics, epistemology and logic; and axiology and ethics of
Sankhya Philosophy on the basis of principles, then following is the way—
1. This creation is made up of combination of Prakriti and Purusha—According to Sankhya, this
creation is made up of combination of Prakruti and Purusha. Its logic behind this is that Prakruti is only non-living element, without combination with living element, action cannot take place in it, and creation cannot happen without action. On the other hand Purusha is only living element, it cannot action without help of non-living element, and creation cannot happen without action. So
Prakriti and Purusha combination is must for the sake of creation.
2. Prakriti and Purusha both are fundamental elements—Sankhya considers Prakriti and Purusha
as fundamental elements, consider as eternal and infi nite, consider as truth, but consider Prakriti
as non-living and Purusha as living, consider Prakriti as tri-qualitative and Purusha as without property. Prakriti and Purusha are complementary in term of creation, according to Sankhya.
3. Purusha is independent entity and he is many—Sankhya consider Purusha i.e. Soul is independent
entity, it don’t consider as a part of BRAHMA, consider as fundamental element in itself. Sankhya accept an independent entity of soul in every living-organism, it is Anekaatmawadi Philosophy.
4. Human is combination of Prakriti and Purusha—According to Sankhya, human is a part of creation, so its origin is also from combination of Prakriti and Purusha. According to Kapila, physical body of human is made-up of ovum-semen of parents and astral-body is made from combination of conscience
and five Tanmatra. Experiences of different birth stored on his astral-body and it only enters from
one birth to another. According to Sankhya, human’s physical body and astral-body is non-living elements and content living element is Purusha. Sankhya considers human birth is intended.
5. Human development depends upon its both living and non-living elements—According to
Sankhya, human is combination of Prakriti and Purusha and its development depends on these
two elements. In terms of Sankhya, human development has three directions – Physical, Mental and
6. Ultimate objective of human birth is Salvation—According to Sankhya, human birth is intended,
its motto is to release from three sorrows. Calls it Salvation. Why three sorrow experienced?. When
Purusha forgetting its original form and consider himself Buddhi, then he experience sorrow other
he is different from all these. When human identifies original form of his soul, then he is free from
three sorrows, gets salvation. Human, who is free from experiencing of three sorrows in current
life, is called Jeevanmukta (Salvation in life) in Sankhya and who is free from experiencing of three
sorrows after death, is called Videha Mukta (Salvation without body).
7. Discretion knowledge is needed for Salvation—According to Sankhya, discretion knowledge,
i.e. knowledge of differentiation of Prakriti and Purusha is needed for salvation. In that state only
Purusha after seperation from from Prakriti, separate himself from happiness – sorrows, free from
sufferings of deeds.
8. Yoga Sadhana way is needed for discretion knowledge—Sankhya considers that modalities
suggested by Yoga (Yama, Niyama, Aasana, Pranayama, Pratyahaara, Dharana, Dhyan and Samadhi)
are needed for discretion knowledge.
9. Moral conduct is needed for Yoga follower—First step of Yoga modality is–Yama. Yama means control on mind, speech and deeds, Yoga considers that Truth, Non-violence, Anti-theft, No storage of things and Celibacy are must be followed for it. Second step of Yoga modality is–Niyama. According to Yoga, Niyama are also 5–Sanitation, Satisfaction, Tenacity, Self study, Worship.
According to Yoga, after following these five vows and five rules, a seeker can perform Aasana, Pranayama, Pratyahaara,
Dharana, Dhyan and Samadhi. These are called moral-laws in todays language.