Fundamental Principles of Naturalism:
We can index metaphysics, epistemology and logic, and axiology and ethics of Naturalism in following way:
1. This world is a natural creation—According to naturalist cause and happening of the universe is itself
nature. Combination of natural element result in formation of different matter and combination of
different matter result in creation of world and and dissolution of these matter cause its destruction.
This process of combination and dissolution take place under some particular rules. There creation
and destruction is known as natural change. For example the formation of ice from water and
formation of water from ice is a natural change. In this reference the formation of tree from seed
and formation of seed from tree is best example. Other matters of the world also change their state
according the natural rules.
2. This physical world is only truth, there is no spiritual world beyond it—Naturalist believe that this physical world is only truth. Their clarifi cation is that we are seeing this world directly with our senses so this is the only truth. On the other hand we cannot see the spiritual world by our senses so that is not truth. According to the naturalist matter cannot be destroyed, it can only change its state. So how it is possible to believe that materialistic physical world is unreal and mortal.
3. Soul is conscious materialistic substance—Naturalist denies the spiritual pattern of soul. Their
clarifi cation is that this world is formed by nature and this formation takes place according to some
rules, the idea of having any spiritual power behind this is only a false idea. The question arose that how does the conscious element (soul) develop in humans? In this fi eld naturalists clarify that all matter in nature are made up by combination of atoms and atoms are active, that is the cause of development of life in matter and consciousness in life. Ideologist defi nes this consciousness as soul. Naturalists have logic that soul is also made up of matter so with the end of a body, soul also destroyed.
4. Human is best creation of the world—Naturalists does not believe human as complete by birth, but
accept human as best creation of the world. According to physical scientific naturalist human is best matter of the universe. According to instrument naturalist human is best instrument of the universe and according to bio scientifi c naturalists human is best animal of the universe. This is absolutely wrong to see human as only matter or instrument so we will discuss the third thought only. According to bio scientific naturalists human have some special power in comparison to the animals, which
make human superior then animals. The intelligence of human is specifi cally important for that. According to them, this intelligence is born by brain and brain is a group of highly developed nerve system.
5. Human Development is a Natural Action—Bio scientific naturalists believe in theory of development.
According to this human is developed form a low category creature to high category creature. Like any other creature, human also born with some basic powers. The nature of these powers is natural. Due to stimulation from outer environment these powers become active and defi ne the behavior of human. There is no spiritual power involved in development of human being.
6. The Purpose of Human Life is to Live Life Happily—Naturalists don’t believe in any aim of human
life. They believe that every living being have a desire to live & it struggle to live & keep it safe by
adopting itself according to the situations. Human being not only knows how to be favorable with
the situations but is also able to create his situations and due to this he is capable of living life more
comfortably in comparison to other living creatures. According to naturalists easement means – self-defense and satisfaction of senses. Naturalist believes this as only aim of life. This view is completely
7. Natural Living is Best for a Comfortable life—Naturalists believe that due to civilization and culture
human being made a difference with nature and this is the cause of his sorrow. They clarify that
natural nature of human is best. Human being only need self defense & don’t want any obstacles in
self defense. Demerits like fraud, enmity; cheating etc are not the nature of human being. This is the
reason why Naturalists favor development of human being by living in independent environment
according to his nature.
8. Importance of Ability, Adjustment & Control in Situations in Natural Life—According to Bio
scientific Naturalists, fi rst rule to live a natural life is that a human should be capable to survive, second he should have power to adjust his natural environment and thirdly he should have power to control the situations. The human who don’t have these powers will not survive.
9. State Power is the Only Practical—Rousseau, the founder of Naturalists evaluated a kingdom by the point of welfare of public. He observes the abuse of human interests in autocracy ruling system. In protest he started a campaign with slogan “rule of the people for the people”. And he foresees the rule of laws in such kind of kingdom. That’s the reason he is considered as a founder of ideologist in the field of political science. But he opposes the tough control of kingdom in the field of education. He said that kingdom don’t have any right to stop the independent development of a human. We see contrast in his thoughts. In this reference we are agree with other naturalists, who expect human education from kingdom and want that personal interests of people should be taken care.
Purpose of Education:
Many naturalists contributed in order to defi ne purpose of education. We are mentioning those purposes
1. Elevation & Redirection of Original Habits—Instrument Naturalism gave birth to behaviorism
psychology, according to which every person is born with some spontaneous actions. When these
spontaneous actions come into contact of outer environment then concerned spontaneous actions
are formed. These concerned spontaneous actions help human to carry out different kind of tasks.
Due to this instrument naturalists believe that the purpose of education in human life is to develop
proper and correct concerned spontaneous actions. According to Mc Dougall, purpose of education
is to elevate original habits of human and use them to desired purpose.
2. Development of Power & Abilities for Struggle in Life—According to bioscience naturalists, every
living being has a desire of life. And in order to survive, he has to struggle with environment always.
Regarding this, Darwin had given two theories – struggle for survival and existence of capable. According to him purpose of study should be to prepare human & country for struggle of life.
3. To Prepare Human Favorable To The Environment—French philosopher Lemark was agreed with
the theory of Darwin, but he defi ne it in different way. Lemark believe that every living being have a ability to adopt himself according to the circumstances and the living being who can adopt to circumstance in better way have better chances to survive. According to him the purpose of education is to provide that power to the human by which he can make himself favorable to the environment.
For this purpose he stressed on gaining physical and mental health.
4. To Make Human Capable of Living Natural Life—According to Rousseau, the purpose of education
should be to build a child capable of living natural life. He believes that everything is good as it comes from the hands of author of nature, men meddle with it and it degenerates. That’s why he was in favor independent development of children according to their nature by keeping children far from polluted society. And according to him this should be the purpose of education.
5. Preparation of Complete Life—Herbert Spencer has some comprehensive views. He gives importance to the social & political action of human in addition of his desire of living life. According to him purpose of education should be self defense of human, earning livelihood, to protect their children, to participate properly in social and political actions and to make good use of his spare time. This is what he say preparation of complete life.
6. Development of Ethnic Features—George Bernard Shaw also believes in Ethnic features and he want
to bring human to the path of development by introducing him with his ethnic features. According
to him protection of ethnic features and its transfer should be the purpose of education.
7. Personal Development of Human—Naturalists believe in original powers, habits, interests, trends
and aptitude of human and because no two human can be same in these regards, so they stress in personal development of human and see it as main purpose of education.