Education and culture are intimately and integrally connected. The
cultural pattern of a society conditions its educational pattern. For
example, if a society has a spiritual pattern of culture, then its educational procedures will emphasize the achievement of moral and eternal values of life. On the other hand, if the cultural pattern of a society is materialistic, then naturally its educational pattern will be shaped for the attainment of material values which promote pleasures of senses and material comforts.
A society devoid of any culture will have no definite educational
organization. Hence the culture of a country has a very powerful impact
on its educational pattern.
The ultimate relationship between culture and education is evident
from the fact that one of the major aims education is to impact to the child his cultural heritage. In any human group, the various elements and parts of culture evolve after thousands of years of the experience, and these are handed down as a whole to the succeeding generations. Hence every individual is born into a particular culture which provide him definite patterns of behaviour and values which guide his conduct in different walks of life. He has thereby saved the necessity of making fresh experiments every time. Obviously, then, culture plays an important part in man‘s life in the adaptation to the natural environment, in the adaptation to the social environment, in the development of personality and socialization.
Every society has a culture or a method of operating which is
unique to it. To live harmoniously in a given culture, its members must be
aware of the various modes of conduct which are acceptable to that
culture. It is through the process of education that children and new
members are apprised of these facts. Also, in order to survive, the
individual must become acquainted with the nature of these things in his
environment with which he may have to cope. In very general terms then,
it may be said that universally, the purpose of education is to inform the
individual about the nature of his culture and the acceptable methods of coping with that culture. The implication, clearly, is that education should teach the students of a particular country how to look at the world and doing things according to the way of doing things of his own country.
(i) Impact of Culture on Education:
As mentioned above, culture and education have a give and take
relationship. Both compliments and supplements each other in various
aspects. The following are some of the influences of culture on education.
1. The aims and ideals of education are mostly determined by the
values and patterns of society.
2. Curriculum is conditioned according to the culture of society. It is framed according to the ideals and needs of the society to realize
the cultural values.
3. Methods of teaching and culture are intimately connected. The
changing cultural patterns of a society exert powerful influence
upon the methods of teaching also. The shift from the old teacher
centred teaching to child centred education is an example.
Socialized methods like project method, seminar, symposium,
discussion etc. are widely used in the teaching learning process
because of the influence of culture.
4. Discipline is also influenced by the cultural values. The present
cultural patterns of thinking and living are directly linked to our
concept of discipline. The concept of repressive discipline of ancient and Middle Ages has been replaced by the modern values of life.
5. Text books which are written according to the formulated
curriculum and promote and foster cultural ideals and values are
6. Teacher who has imbibed the cultural ideals and values of the
society only can achieve his mission successfully. Only such teacher is able to infuse higher ideals and moral values in children.
7. School is a miniature of society. The total activities and programmes of the school are organized according to the cultural ideals and values of society. Hence school is the centre of
promoting, moulding, reforming and developing the cultural patterns of the society.