The following factors are responsible for the growth of village communities across nations:

A• Topographical factors: Topographical factors include land, water and climate. Land is the most important factor and significantly contributes towards the establishment and growth of village communities. Village communities can survive and grow only on fertile land because agriculture thrives on such land. Therefore, historically, villages have come up on fertile
land tracts and rocky and sandy lands have been avoided.

The availability of water also plays a crucial role in the settlement of
village communities. The villages that have a river or stream nearby are
usually heavily populated. Water provides life to human beings, animals and crops. It would be impossible to survive if water is unavailable or is available
at a great distance. Easy availability of water and presence of irrigation
facilities helps the villagers in earning higher incomes through higher agricultural produce. Higher incomes bring prosperity and the village community adopts modernity and features of capitalism.

A favourable climate is also essential for the growth of the village
community. People cannot lead a normal and healthy life in places having extreme heat, cold or rain.

B• Economic factors: A village community’s growth and development depends upon the condition of its agricultural sector. If this sector does well, then the
villagers earn more and move forward in life. It also depends upon the overall village economy and how it enables farmers to get a better return on their agricultural produce. A third economic factor is the status of the cottage industries. If the cottage industries sector do well then the villagers get to earn some additional income.

C• Social factors: Social factors have a very important role in the growth of a
village community. Factors like peace and security, cooperation, celebration
of festivals together do go a long way in securing the growth of the village
community. These factors ensure safety of the villagers’ lives; assure
cooperation in economic and other matters and promote a feeling of oneness amongst them.

In the ultimate analysis, it is evident that it is knowledge and intelligence that can ensure growth and development of villages and village communities. With low levels of literacy and poor quality of education, village communities in developing
and under developed countries are not able to raise their farm productivity. This results in low incomes and keeps them perpetually in a state of deprivation. In contrast, the village communities in the advanced western countries are far more developed and prosperous.