A. Concepts of Endogamy :
Endogamy is the form of marriage in which one must marry within one’s own caste or other group. This rule does not permit marriage of close kin. Endogamous marriage is that which is confined within the group. As a matter of fact, endogamy and exogamy are relative words. That which is endogamous from one viewpoint is exogamous from another viewpoint. In the sub-caste exogamy of Hindus, the marriage is contracted outside the sub-caste but the same marriage would be endogamous from the viewpoint of the race or nation.
In India, the following kinds of endogamy can be found:
• Divisional or tribal endogamy: Here, no individual can marry outside
his own tribe or division.
• Caste endogamy: Here, the marriage is contracted within the caste.
• Class endogamy: Here, the marriage can take place between people
of only one class or of a particular status.
• Sub-caste endogamy: Here, the choice for marriage is restricted to
• Race endogamy: Here, one can marry in the race.
B. Advantages of endogamy:
Following are the advantages of endogamy:
• Purity in the group is maintained.
• Other people do not gain authority over the group’s wealth.
• It tends to maintain the sense of unity within the group.
• Women are happier within their own group.
• The business secrets of the group are kept intact.
C. Disadvantages of endogamy:
Following are the disadvantages from which endogamy suffers:
• It shatters the national unity because the nation is divided into small endogamous groups.
• The scope for choice of a life partner is limited due to which malpractices
such as unsuitable marriages, polygamy, dowry system, bride price, etc are fostered.
• It generates hatred and jealousy for other groups. This is the main root
cause of casteism in India.