A. Meaning of School Inspection:

According to dictionary, meaning of inspection is to give test and test meant is to probe with easy
and critical view. In the area of education also this sort of test is reflected from the inspection of
school with activities related to education and conditions. The school with activities related to education and conditions. The school inspector is appointed by government goes to various schools at times. There he tests some classes, laboratories and play grounds. Besides, he receives some other informations by asking questions from principal / headmaster and teachers and by doing inspection
of registers regarding office, financial matters with view of critical appreciation. The information
received in this way and on the basis of self-observation, inspector prepares his report, and produces
the report before his high officials. This report comes in the hands of various officers and each officer gives his remarks on it and passes it to next one. In this way the remarks are entered on it. With the result, when it reaches the principal, the lot of situation has changed which was criticised in the report. Thus, the result of inspection to a great extent automatically goes meaningless.

B. Principles of Good Inspection:
Inspection, in order to be effective and fruitful, should be conducted according to certain principles
which may be listed as:

(1) Principle of General Growth : lnspection should contribute to the general efficiency of the school and to the professional growth of the teacher.

(2) Principle of Understanding : Inspection should be done very sympathetically. An inspector
should carry with him an abundance of sympathy.

(3) Principle of Scientific Attitude : inspection implies the impartial observation of facts. The inspector must maintain a scientific and critical attitude and should be free from prejudices.

(4) Principle of Thoroughness : Inspection should be very comprehensive and through. It should
not merely be concerned with the financial aspect of school management and administrative
details but should cover all aspects of school work.

(5) Principle of Esprit De Corps : Inspectors should try to assess the spirit of a school in addition
to its instructional work. The spirit of school may be gauged from the records of staff meetings,
co-curricular activities and any experimental work done in educational methods. The standard
of discipline on the playing field and outside the class in a sure index of the spirit of a school.

(6) Principle of Appreciation : The individuality of the teacherโ€™s method should be respected. The inspector should not insist on โ€˜deadly uniformityโ€™. He should try to understand the methods
employed by the teachers and appreciate the good points they contain.

(7) Principle of Justice : The inspectors should be judicious in their criticism of the work of the teachers. They should not be โ€˜misersโ€™ in giving praise when it is deserved.

(8) Principle of All-Round Development : Inspection should not be cursory in character. At least
two or three days should be devoted. The work of the teacher should not be judged in a few minutes. More careful and longer supervision is necessary. Doing is always better than telling.
Demonstration lessons by an inspector are more useful than pages of suggestions. However, It must be stressed that it is a when an inspector finds a class weak in a subject or finds unsatisfactory methods being used by the teacher Such a step is likely to lower the prestige of the teacher in the eyes of the students.

(9) Principle of Reality : The inspecting staff should not expect impossibility. They should
understand the local conditions perfectly well and then decide for themselves what progress may reasonably by expected.

(10) Principle of Integration : The written work of the students should be carefully assessed. In the case of subjects with practical work such as science, agriculture and drawing, the inspectors should always get practical work done by the students.

(11) Principle of Linkage : Inspection should not be confined to the four walls of the school. As the school is to serve the community and is intimately connected with it, the inspector should help the school to develop proper contacts with the community and to improve its relations with people.

(12) Principle of Planning : Inspections must be planned in advance. They should not be a hit-or-
miss affair. A good-planned inspection will have a set of clearly stated objectives and will
contain an outline of the devices, means and procedures which are to be used in the attainment of these objectives. It will also include a clear out-line of the criteria, checks or tests which are to be used to the results of inspection in order to determine the success or failure of the programmes.

(13) Principle of Cooperation : The academic work of the school should be thoroughly checked by a panel of experts with the Inspectors as chairman. Inspection should be planned in such a way as cooperation of all concerned is readily available.

C. Qualities of Good Inspector:
Brilley suggests that the motto of an Inspector should not be, โ€œCheek your teachers, frighten your teachers, weaken your teachers, and examine them,โ€ but its variant, โ€œTrain your teachers, inspire your teachers, encourage your teachers and trust them.โ€

(l) Man of Educational Vision : He should be aware of new trends in education, latest techniques
in education and recent problems in the field. He should not merely assess the academic achievements of the school but also the all-round progress of the school should occupy his

(2) Man of Faith : There is no use of being impatient, for growth and improvement always take time. The inspector must have a far-reaching programme, but putting through it, he should proceed item by item.

(3) Man of Experiments : He must be an experimenter. An able inspector will select forward-looking schools where the teachers and the headmasters have a progressive outlook on education and are imbued with the spirit of experimentation and will turn these schools into nurseries
wherein the seeds of educational reform and progress are sown, cared for and their progress carefully watched and the message carried to other schools.

(4) Man of Planning : The inspector should plan his work thoroughly and should not undertake
it at random.

(5) Man of Sympathy : He should always show respect for the teacherโ€™s personality. A good inspector in one who can inspire and enthuse the teachers without domination over them like a harsh task master. He should place the teachers on a footing of human equality. He should be
co-operative, sympathetic and affectionate.

(6) Constructive Mind : An inspector should possess a constructive mind rather than a destructive one. He should never undertake a visit to a school with the pure objective of fault- finding. An inspector who fails to praise when commendation is deserved, is failing as much in his duties as one who fails to criticise when criticism is deserved. He should have a problem-solving attitude and should help teachers in tacking the problems with which they are faced.

(7) Organising Capacity : As he is to serve as โ€˜teacher of teachers; he should have the capacity to
organise refresher courses, meetings, seminars and discussions.

(8) Expert in Various Subjects : An inspector should be a specialist in many languages and subjects.
This is particularly important in our schools where different media of instruction are followed.

(9) A Liaison Officer : An inspector should be a friendly liaison officer between the department and the field workers, a mediator linking up scattered educational experiences and experiments. Hart of the California University, a specialist in school administration, has enumerated seven abilities which every administrator and supervisor should possess in ample degree to discharge his duties well. The first is the ability to recognise the especially worthwhile things that are taking place in the school system. The second is to organise the school system so that essentially worthwhile things discovered are spread throughout the system. The third is to overcome the inefficiencies of others without losing their good will. The fourth is to set goals that are within
the reach of an individual. The fifth ability is that of making everyone in the school system feel the worth whileness of his job. The sixth is that of helping everyone in the system to grow professionally and grow in-service to society. And the seventh is to make those who work for
or with the administrator or supervisor personally happy.

(10) Supervisor as a Good Administrator : Expert in playing various roles include :

(i) Personnel administration-appointment, promotion and transfer of the teaching, non-teaching
and inspecting staff, their performance, appraisal and disciplinary control.

(ii) Financial administration sanctioning and disbursement of grant-in-aid, disbursement of
teacherโ€™s salaries, audit and inspection of accounts.

(iii) Dealing with disputes between teachers and management and attending to quasi-judicial

(iv) Dealing with local bodies and the Panchayat Raj institutions.

(11) Role as a Supervisor and Inspector : A supervisor should be able to provide academic leadership
and technical advice for improving the teaching-learning process.

(12) Role as Professional Leader and Innovator : He must be an expert in organising orientation programmes, refresher courses, in-service training programmes, dissemination of new ideas and popularisation of tested good practices, encouraging experiments and other innovations.

(13) Role as Development Generalist and Planner : This implies adequate training and capability in co-operating and collaborating with other departments in the overall development planning
of the district, formulating, implementing and evaluating educational plans at the district,
regional level; guiding and promoting programmes at the institutional level.

(14) Role as a Bridge Builder Between the School and the Community : A supervisor should be adept in fostering good public relations; securing community participation for improving and developing educational institutions; making institutions conscious of the need to serve the community better.

To sum up the qualities of an inspector, it may be stated that he should a man of learning, faith,
pains taking with life and energy and imbued with a spirit of progress and experimentation and above prejudices of all petty personal affiliations.

D. Selection of Inspectors:
In view of the multifarious functions an inspection is expected to perform, it is very essential that sufficient care is taken in the selection of the inspecting personnel. It is suggested by the Secondary Education Commission that a person to be chosen as an Inspector should possess high academic qualifications (an Honours or Masterโ€™s degree with teacherโ€™s training) and should have had teaching experience in schools for at least ten years, or should have been a Headmaster of a High School for a minimum period of three years. In addition to direct recruitment the Inspector should also be drawn from :

(i) Teachers of ten yearโ€™s experience.

(ii) Experienced Headmasters of High Schools.

(iii) Qualified staff of Training Colleges.

The Commission further recommends that suitable persons from any of three categories may be appointed as Inspectors for a period of three to five years after which they may revert to their original posts. This will enable them to appreciate the position of the Inspector and to approach the
problems of the schools with greater appreciation of the realities from their own experience.

The Zakir Hussain Committee has substituted the word โ€˜Supervisorโ€™s for inspectors. According to this report an efficient and supervisory staff is almost as important for the new schools as well trained teaching personnel. Supervision is a fairly supervised work and we would recommend that provision should be made for the training of supervisor to meet the ever-growing needs of an
expanding school system. The minimum qualification for a supervisor. According to the Zakir Hussain Committee, should be complete training as a basic school teacher together with at least two yearโ€™s experience of successful teaching and a year of special training in the work of supervision and
administration Supervision should not be mere inspection, it should mean personal co-operation
and help offered by one who knows more to a less experienced or less resourceful colleague.

Supervisors should indeed be able to play the role of leaders and guides in the educational experiment.
In order that the more important obligations of helpful guidance and leadership may be properly fulfilled. It is necessary that the load of unavoidable and administrative routine should be as light as possible. Therefore there should be an adequate number of supervisors and the supervisory districts should not be un-manageably large. This will mean greater expense but economy here will be a bad economy.