PHASES OF TEACHING:
Teaching is complex task, to make this job easy and successful, a systematic planning is needed. Teaching is to be considered in terms of various steps and the steps constituting the process are called phases of teaching. Philip W Jackson thinks that if we are to obtain a complete description of the teaching activity, we must consider what the teacher does before and after the regular teaching in the class. Jackson analyses the teaching systematically in three steps-
1. Pre-active phase of teaching
2. Interactive phase of teaching
3. Post-active phase of teaching
1. PRE-ACTIVE PHASE OF TEACHING-
Pre-active phase as the name implies is concerned with the preparation of teaching. Before actual classroom teaching or what Jackson calla “calm” part of teaching, a teacher has to perform many tasks. These tasks include such as preparing lesson plans, arranging furniture and equipment within classroom, manning papers, studying test reports, reading sections of a textbooks etc. the phase is therefore called the planning stage.
In pre-active stage following operations or sub-stages are involved:
1. Formulating or fixing up the goals- First of all, the teacher formulates the teaching objectives in behavioral terms by using taxonomy of educational objectives. These objectives are of two types-
I] In the form of entering behavior of pupil.
II] In the form of terminal behavior of pupils.
2. Decision making about the content: After fixing the goals, the has to arrange the sub-contents in a logical sequence in a such a way that it should function empirically. Content should be so arranged that it facilitates transfer of learning.
3. Decision making about the strategies for teaching: Here the teacher select appropriate strategies and tactics keeping in view the content and level of the pupils with help of which the contents can be marked on the brain of pupils very easily.
4. Developing teaching strategies for specific subject matter: Decision making about the teaching methods and strategies for presenting the content is not sufficient but the teacher is also to decide how and when he will make use of which method and strategy during classroom teaching.
2. INTERACTIVE PHASE OF TEACHING: This is actual classroom teaching . It includes all those behavior and activities which a teacher uses after entering the classroom.
The teacher provides pupil’s verbal stimulation of various kind. “makes explanations, ask questions, listens to student’ responses and provides guidance” P.W Jackson.
The phase includes the following operations:
I- Sizing up of class
II- Diagnosis of the class;
III- Action and reaction of achievement
I} Sizing up of Class: As the teacher enters the classroom, he perceives the size of the class and throws his eyes on all the pupils. He locates which faces are discouraging, encouraging etc. in this way, he tries to size up the class group before teaching. Similarly, the students also size up the personality of the teacher in a few seconds. Hence, at this stage the teacher must look like a teacher first. He should posses all those qualities which are supposed to be present in a good teacher.
II} Diagnosis of learners: The teacher tries to diagnose the level of achievement in his students In three areas-
A- Abilities of the learners:
B- Interests and attitudes of learners:
C- Academic background of learners:
This may done by asking some questions or enquiring about the matter.
III} Action and reaction of achievement:
This involves the following operations or sub stages:
A-Selection and presentation of stimuli-
The stimuli in the action or activity of teaching can be verbal or non verbal, the teacher should be aware of the motive which is an appropriate stimulus or which is irrelevant stimuli in that particular teaching situation. The teacher should select the appropriate stimulus as soon as the situation arises and an effort should be made to control the undesired activities to create the situation and for desired activities. After selecting the stimuli, the teacher should present them before the pupils. The teacher must know three things in presenting the stimuli: i) Form II) content and iii) order of sequence.
B- Feedback and reinforcement:
it increases the probability that a particular response will be repeated in future. In other word, those conditions which increase the possibility of occurrence of a particular response are termed as feedback or reinforcement. These conditions may be of two types:
1. Positive reinforcement- these are the conditions which increases the probability of re-occuring of desirable response of behavior e;g praise, appreciation, reward, knowledge of result etc.
2. Negative reinforcement- the conditions which decrease the probability of re-occuring the undesirable response or behavior e;g reproof etc.
Reinforcement is used for three purposes. These are i} for strengthening the response, ii} for changing the response and iii} for modifying or correcting the response.
D- Deployment of strategies-
At the time of interaction the teacher produces such activities and conditions by the reinforcement strategies which effect the activities of pupils. The deployment of the teaching strategies turns the pupil-teacher interaction impressive. The strategies of reinforcing the students and of controlling their verbal and non verbal behavior are used for imparting the subject content effectively while a teacher teaches in classroom.
3-POST – ACTIVE PHASE OF TEACHING–
This phase is also known as evaluative stage. It provides necessary feedback to the teacher and the student in bringing the desirable improvement in their improvement in their performance. It is related with both teaching and learning. The teacher analyses as to what extent the students have grasped the material presented to them. The teacher is able to see whether the methods and strategies used by him were successful and if so to what extent. It helps the teacher to teach things better in future. It also helps student to learn things better. It helps the teacher to decide whether he should proceed with the new contents or re-teach what has already been taught.
Following are the main operations at this stage-
1. Assessing the suitability of objectives determined.
2. Decision regarding re-teaching the content or further taking up the content.
3. Assessing the suitability of the instructional material and aids.
4. Assessing the impact of the classroom environment.